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  • 雷电形成的过程你了解吗
  • 本站编辑:杭州晨诺机械科技有限公司发布日期:2018-07-06 15:02 浏览次数:
(1)雷云的形成
(1) the ion of thundercloud
 
 
雷电的生成始于雷云的生成,其实有几种云都与雷电有关,如层积云、雨层云、积云、积雨云,比较重要的则是积雨云,即雷云。雷云是由大气上空的水滴、冰晶和气体尘埃等组成的巨大的、不透光且带电荷的乌黑色云块,其形成的根本原因就是含水蒸气的气流运动。随着雷云的不断发展聚积,将会引起闪电、雷鸣现象,这就是雷暴。
The generation of lightning started from thunderclouds. In fact, several clouds are related to lightning, such as the cumulus clouds, Yu Cengyun, cumulonimbus, cumulonimbus, and the most important is the cumulonimbus, that is, thundercloud. The thundercloud is a huge, opaque and charged black cloud composed of water droplets, ice crystals and gas dust above the atmosphere. The fundamental reason for the ion is the flow of water vapor. With the continuous development of thundercloud, it will cause lightning and thunder. This is thunderstorm.
 
 
1)雷暴的分类
1) classification of thunderstorms
 
雷暴的形成主要是两种:锋面雷暴和热雷暴。
There are two main types of thunderstorms: frontal thunderstorms and thermal thunderstorms.
 
 
锋面雷暴是由于在地表流动的两个气团相遇时,冷气团因密度大而流动在热气团下方,在两者交界面上形成相对运动并把热气团猛抬上升,热气流形成强大的上升气柱和涡流,这样就会形成积云。这时如果热气团的温度足够高和水分足够多,就可以形成巨大的雷暴乌云。
The frontal thunderstorm is due to the meeting of the two air masses on the surface of the surface. The cold air mass flows under the hot air mass because of its large density. It forms relative motion at the interface of the two and raises the hot gas mass. The hot gas flow forms a powerful rising gas column and swirl, thus forming cumulus clouds. At this time, if the temperature of the hot air group is high enough and the water is enough, a huge thunderstorm cloud can be formed.
 
 
热雷暴发生在山区。由于阳光照射,山丘及其地面温度升高,热气流因密度小而向天空流动,附近树木、湖泊和河流等的气温较低,周围相对较冷的气流向山丘温度较高、密度较小的地带集中,同时这些气流又被山丘地表的高温加热而向天空流动,这样就形成热雷暴。
Hot thunderstorms occur in the mountains. Because of sunlight, the temperature of the hills and the ground rises, the heat flow is flowing to the sky because of the small density, the temperature in the nearby trees, lakes and rivers is low, and the relatively cold air around the hills concentrates on the hills with higher temperature and smaller density. At the same time, the air flow is heated to the sky by the high temperature of the hill surface. In this way, a hot thunderstorm is formed.
 
 
2)积雨云的起电机制
2) the electrification mechanism of cumulonimbus
 
 
积雨云起电机制的主要理论有以下三种:
There are three main theories for the development of motor systems.
 
 
①吸水电荷效应。大气中存在方向向下的电场,使空气正负离子分别向下和向上运动。中性水滴在电场中也要受到极化,上端出现负电荷,下端出现正电荷。大水滴在下落时,它的下端吸收负离子,排斥正离子,由于大水滴下降速度快,故其上端的负电荷来不及吸收它上方的正离子,所以整个水滴带负电。小水滴被气流带着向上走,它上端的极化负电荷将吸收正离子,所以小水滴带正电。
(1) the effect of water absorption and charge. There is downward electric field in the atmosphere, which makes the positive and negative ions move downward and upward. Neutral water droplets will also be polarized in the electric field. Negative charges will appear at the upper end and positive charges at the bottom. When the large water drop is falling down, its lower end absorbs negative ions and repels the positive ions. As the large water drops fall fast, the negative charge at the upper end of the water drops is too late to absorb the positive ions above it, so the whole water drop is negative. Small droplets are carried upward by the airstream, and the polarized negative charge at the top will absorb positive ions, so small droplets are positively charged.
 
 
②水滴冻冰效应。实验发现,水在结冰时冰会带正电荷,而未结冰的水带有负电荷,所以当云中冰晶区中的上升气流把冰粒上面的水带走,就会导致电荷的分离而使不同云区带电。
(2) the freezing effect of water droplets. It is found that the ice will take a positive charge when the water is frozen, and the unfrozen water has a negative charge, so when the updraft in the ice crystal area takes away the water on the ice particles, it will lead to the separation of the charge and make the different cloud areas live.
 
 
③水滴破裂效应。用强烈气流吹散空气中的水滴,较大的残滴带有正电,细微的水滴带有负电,这是因为水滴表面有很多电子的缘故。
(3) the effect of water drop rupture. The water droplets in the air are blown away with a strong air flow, the larger droplets are positive, and the tiny drops of water are negative because there are a lot of electrons on the surface of the water droplets.
 
 
3)雷云放电机理
3) the discharge mechanism of thundercloud
 
 
由于云中电荷分布不均,形成许多电荷中心,所以云团之间、云团内部和云对大地之间的电场强度都是不一样的。只有当云对大地场强最高并且达到一定值时才发生对地放电。同样,云团之间电场强度达到某一临界值时也会发生云间放电。实际上,绝大多数放电是发生在云间或云内。
Due to the uneven distribution of charges in the clouds, many charge centers are formed, so the electric field intensity between clouds, clouds and the clouds is different. Only when the cloud is strong enough for the earth's field to reach a certain value will the earth discharge occur.  Similarly, cloud discharge occurs when the electric field intensity reaches a critical value. In fact, most discharge occurs in clouds or clouds.
 
 
雷云对地放电的机理:带有大量电荷的云团对大地产生静电感应,大地感应出大量异性电荷,使雷云和大地之间形成强大的场强,当某一处的电场强度达到25~30kV/cm时,就会由雷云向大地产生先导放电(少数情况下雷电先导是由地表向上发出的)。当先导到达地面或与地面先导相遇时,通过电荷中和形成强烈放电产生雷击。放电通常不止发生一次,第一次的电流很大,后续雷击电流小得多。
The mechanism of the thundercloud to the ground discharge is that the clouds with large amounts of charges generate electrostatic induction to the earth, and the earth induces a large number of heterosexual charges, making a strong field between the thundercloud and the earth. When the intensity of an electric field reaches 25 to 30kV/cm, the thundercloud will lead to a first discharge from the thundercloud to the earth. From the surface of the earth. When the pilot reaches the ground or meets the pilot on the ground, a strong discharge is generated by charge neutralization to produce lightning strikes. The discharge usually happens more than once, the first current is very large, and the subsequent lightning current is much smaller.
 
 
(2)雷电波形及主要参数
(2) lightning waveform and main parameters
 
 
1)模拟雷电冲击电压波
1) simulated lightning impulse voltage wave
 
 
模拟雷电冲击电压波形。
Simulation of lightning impulse voltage waveform.
 
 
主要参数:
Main parameters:
 
 
①视在原点O1指通过波前上A点(电压峰值的30%处)和B点(电压峰值的90%处)作一直线与横轴相交之点。
(1) the O1 at the origin point refers to the point where a straight line crosses the horizontal axis through the A point on the wave front (30% points of the voltage peak) and the B point (90% parts of the voltage peak).
 
 
②时间T:指电压波上A、B两点间的时间间隔。
Time T: the time interval between two points of A and B on the voltage wave.
 
 
③波前时间T1:指由视在原点O1到D点(=1.67T处)的时间间隔。
3. Wavefront time T1: the time interval from the origin O1 to D point (=1.67T).
 
 
④半峰值时间T2:指由视在原点O1到电压峰值,然后再下降到峰值一半处的时间间隔。
Half peak time T2: the time interval from the origin O1 to the peak voltage and then down to half the peak value.
 
 
2)模拟雷电冲击电流波
2) simulated lightning impulse current wave
 
 
模拟雷电冲击电流波形。
Simulate the wave of lightning impulse current.
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